Duality of Female Employment in Pakistan

Shahnaz Kazi, Bilquees Raza


Before proceeding to the main fmdings of the study it is
necessary to briefly mention the problems of data collection on women's
employment in Pakistan. The shortcomings of official data sources such
as the Labour Force Survey and the Population Census have been pointed
out in detail elsewhere [Afzal and Nasir (1987); Government of Pakistan
(1986)] here it will suffice to state that women's economic
participation is greatly underestimated in official statistics mainly
due to unsuitable methods of data collection, inappropriate definitions
of activities and stress on recording only one activity, and the
cultural inhibition to admitting to women working. Given these problems
the present study relies primarily on data from intensive micro-level
surveys and the Agricultural Census in the case of informal ,sector
employment of women since the limitations of official data are
particularly " acute in these occupations, while estimates of changes
over time in women's share of formal sector jobs (professionals,
clerical, administrative and organized industry) are mainly based on
Labour Force Survey data.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30541/v30i4IIpp.733-743


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