Dynamism in the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Pakistan

Muhammad Sabir, Zehra Aftab

Abstract


One of the main caveats of Pakistan’s economic development
history is the persistence of gender inequality with respect to almost
all socioeconomic indicators. For instance, Pakistan ranks 66, out of 75
countries, with respect to the Gender Empowerment Measure (Human
Development Report, 2006) with a GEM value of 0.377, largely a
manifestation of very low estimated female to male earned income ratio,
which is a depressing 0.29. GEM and other labour force statistics
confirm the gender gap in labour force participation. One of the
possible explanations of this gender gap is gender discrimination in the
labour market, particularly in wages. Evidence with respect to gender
discrimination in Pakistan’s labour market is welldocumented. Siddique,
et al. (2006), Nasir and Nazli (2000), Siddique, et al. (1998) and
Ashraf and Ashraf (1993) all confirm that men earn higher wages than
women even after controlling for measurable characteristics affecting
their productivity. These studies, however, analyse the gender wage gap
by comparing the mean male/female wage. Studies which compare the gender
wage gap at different points along the wage distribution are not
available for Pakistan.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30541/v46i4IIpp.865-882

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