Environmental Efficiency Analysis of Basmati Rice Production in Punjab, Pakistan: Implications for Sustainable Agricultural Development

Mr. Abedullah, Shahzad Kouser, Khalid Mushtaq


The intensive use of chemicals worked as a catalyst to shift
the production frontier but the most critical factor of maintaining a
clean environment was totally ignored. The present study attempts to
estimate the environmental efficiency of rice production by employing
the translog stochastic production frontier approach. The data are
collected from five major Basmati rice growing districts (Gujranwala,
Sheikupura, Sialkot, Hafizabad, and Jhang) of Punjab in 2006. Chemical
weedicides and nitrogen are treated as environmentally detrimental
inputs. The mean technical efficiency index is sufficiently high (89
percent) but the environmental efficiency index of chemical weedicides
alone is 14 percent while the joint environmental efficiency index of
chemical weedicides and nitrogen is 24 percent implying that joint
environmental efficiency is higher than chemical weedicide alone. It
indicates that substantial reduction (86 percent) in chemical weedicide
use is possible with higher level of productivity. Moreover, it is
likely to contribute a considerable decrease in environmental pollution
which is expected to enhance the performance of agriculture labour. The
reduction in chemical weedicides will save Rs 297 per acre and Rs 1307.3
million over all from the rice crop in Punjab, improving the
profitability of rice growing farmers by the same proportion. Empirical
analysis indicates that reduction in environmental pollution together
with higher level of profitability in rice production is achievable. JEL
classification: N5, O13 Keywords: Rice Production, Environmental
Efficiency, Weedicide, Fertiliser (NPK), Stochastic Translog

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30541/v49i1pp.57-72


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