Intergenerational Mobility in Educational Attainments

Malik Muhammad, Muhammad Jamil


This paper investigates intergenerational educational
mobility, a non-monetary measure of socioeconomic status in Pakistan.
Data from the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurements
(PSLM-2012-13) are used for empirical analysis. Contingency tables and
multinomial logit model are utilised. Results indicate strong evidence
of intergenerational linkages in educational attainments between fathers
and their sons. Although findings reveal some degree of upward mobility,
opportunities are not equal for all. Chances for attainment of higher
education for sons of fathers with education up to the secondary level
only, are not as prevalent as for sons of highly educated fathers.
Further, urban areas show higher mobility as compared to rural areas.
Results also reveal that the affluent are more likely to attain higher
levels of education than the financially disadvantaged. In addition,
sons of affluent families in rural areas are less likely to attain
higher levels of education compared to the sons of the affluent in urban
areas. Our findings also support evidence in favour of the child
quality- quantity trade-off as shown by negative impacts of family size
on attainment of higher levels of education. JEL Classification: C24,
J24, L86, O43, O47 Keywords: Inequality of Opportunity, Education,
Intergenerational Mobility

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