Evidence of Fertility Decline in Karachi

Zeba A. Sattar, Afifa Akhtar


From most accounts of demographic transition in other
societies it is expected that fertility is more likely to undergo
changes in urban areas and these differences in reproductive behaviour
will permeate only at a later stage to rural areas. In the light of the
persistently high rate of population growth in Pakistan, fertility
levels have acquired acute importance. Growth rates have been found to
be ever higher in the urban areas of Pakistan and are estimated to be
over 4 percent per annum as compared to a growth rate of 3 percent for
Pakistan as a whole. The higher urban rate of growth has been attributed
both to lower mortality and higher marital fertility in urban areas in
combination with substantial rural to urban migration. Whereas in most
societies, urban fertility is found to be lower than rural fertility
(Alam and Casterline 1983) this was not the case for Pakistan. Earlier
findings based on the Pakistan Fertility Survey 1975 and the Population
Labour Force and Migration Survey 1979' both found that urban marital
fertility exceeded rural marital fertility whereas, the total fertility
rate as an outcome of later marriage patterns urban areas, was slightly
lower than in rural areas [A1am el (II. (1983); Sothor

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30541/v27i4IIpp.659-670


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